Pressure vessels

A pressure vessel is a closed container designed. To hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.

The pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, The definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country. But involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature.

More complicated shapes have historically been much harder to analyze for safe operation and are usually far more difficult to construct.

Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength of a cylindrical pressure vessel.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult to manufacture, And therefore more expensive, So most pressure vessels are cylindrical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure vessels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. A disadvantage of these vessels is that greater breadths are more expensive, So that for example the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pressure vessel might be a breadth of 914.4 millimetres (36 in) and a width of 1,701.8 millimetres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.

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